Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Page: 64-76
Study of Characteristics of Bricks Produced in Kathmandu, Nepal
Shanti Kala Subedi, Himalaya College of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur, Nepal
Received: Jun. 14, 2020;       Accepted: Jun. 30, 2020;       Published: Jul. 6, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajce.20200803.13      View  59      Downloads  67
The quality of brick is determined by its physical, mechanical and microstructure characteristics. The main objective of this study was to assess the characteristics of different types of bricks produced under various clay composition, different types of kiln used, and various firing temperature, and cooling process, which are considered as the major factors affecting the brick quality. A mixed-method approach was used to carry out this study. Both primary and secondary data were collected form field observations, discussions, lab experiments, and literature review. Literature review was done to identify the relationship between affecting factors and brick characteristics. The status of bricks produced was assessed through lab tests. The results from both methods were compared and discussed thoroughly. The purposive sampling method was adopted to collect brick samples from six different brick factories situated in Kathmandu and lab tests were carried out in the Engineering Material Lab at Institute of Engineering (IOE) Pulchowk Campus, Lalitpur, Nepal. Deformation, bulk density, water absorption capacity, and compressive strengths of sampled bricks were observed and then compared with standard code values as well as with previous findings. The study showed that none of the brick samples was found within the standard benchmarks, and the bulk density was low, however, the water absorption capacity and compressive strength values of all the sampled bricks were found to be within the allowable limit, even though they were close to the lower bound. The study also discussed technical, social and environment policy related issues that are important for producing and making the best use of quality bricks. The study results may be applied to other places where similar situation exists.
Brick Quality, Bulk Density, Water Absorption Capacity, Compressive Strength
To cite this article
Shanti Kala Subedi, Study of Characteristics of Bricks Produced in Kathmandu, Nepal, American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 64-76. doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20200803.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bohora, N. B., Bhat, L. B., Ghale, D. B., Duwal, N., & Bhattarai, J. (2019). Investigation of the Firing Temperature Effects on Clay Brick of Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) Part I Mineralogical Phase Characterization. BIBECHANA, A Multi-disciplinary Journal of Science, Technology and Mathematics, 16, 122-130. Retrieved 2018, from http://nepjol.info/index.php/BIBECHANA.
Nepal, S., Mahapatra, P. S., Adhikari, S., Shrestha, S., Sharma, P., Shrestha, K. L.,... Puppala, S. P. (2019). A Comparative Study of Stack Emissions from Straight-Line and Zigzag Brick Kilns in Nepal. 10 (107). doi: 10.3390/atmos 10030107
Manandhar, U., & Dangol, S. (2013). Study on Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in SAARC Countries; A Report on Nepal; SAARC Energy Centre. Islamabad, Pakistan.
Ulak, N. (2015). Nepal’s Earthquake-2015: Its Impact on Various Sectors. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 7, Pp. 1- 29.
Pariyar, S. K., Das, T., & Ferdous, T. (2013). Environment and Health Impact for Brick Kiln in Kathmandu Valley. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 2 (5).
Bhattarai, J., Ghale, D. B., Chapagain, Y. P., Bohora, N. B., & Duwal, N. (2018, December). Study on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Ancient Clay Brick Samples of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Tribhuvan University, Nepal, 32 (2). Retrieved 2020.
Raut, A. (2003). Brick kilns in Kathmandu Valley. Current Status, Environment Impact and Future Options. Himalaya Journal of Science, 1 (1), Pp 59-61.
Tuladhar, B., & Raut, A. (2002). Environment and Health Impact of Kathmandu's Brick Kilns, Clean Energy Nepal (CEN).
Shrestha, S. (2019). A Case Study of Brick Properties Manufacture in Bhaktapur. Journal of Science and Engineering, 7, Pp. 27-33.
Rajput, A. K. (2010). Engineering Material (Third Edition ed.). S. Chand and Company Limited, 7361 Ram Nagar, New Delhi 110-055.
Akinshipe, G., & Kornelius, O. (2017). Chemical and Thermodynamic Processes in Clay Brick Firing Technologies and Associated Atmospheric Emissions Metrics - A Review. Journal of Pollution Effects & Control, 5 (2). doi: 10.4176/2375-4397.1000190.
Dondi, M., Marsigli, M., & Venturi, I. (1999, January). Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Clay Bricks: Comparison Between Fast Firing and Traditional Firing. British Ceramic Transactions, 98 (1), Pp 1218.
Johari, S. B. (2010). Effect of the Change of Firing Temperature on Microstructure and Physical properties of Clay Bricks from Berous. Science of Sintering, 42 (2), 245-254. doi: http://doi.org/10.2298/SOS1002245J.
Robinson, C. G., & Borchelt, G. (1994). Factors Influencing Clay Brick Durability. 10th IB Mac Calgary, Canada.
Tsega, E. M. (2017). Effects of Firing Time and Temperature on Physical Properties of Fired Clay Bricks. American Journal of Civil Engineering, 5 (1), Pp. 21-36.
SMS. (2017). Brick Kiln Stack Emission Monitoring in Kathmandu Valley. Report submitted to Government of Nepal Ministry of Population and Environment Lalitpur Nepal by SMS, Environment and Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Mahalaxmi -16, Imadole, Lalitpur Nepal.
Shah, D. P., Chaudhari, S., Shakya, R., Shah, P. K., & Mishra, A. K. (2019). Status of Brick Kilns Stack Emission in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering, 6 (3&4), Pp 1- 9.
Laffer, D. B. (2004). Engineering Properties of Historic Brick: Variability Considerations as a Stationary Versus Non-Stationary Kiln Types. Journal of the American institute of Conservation, 43 (3), Article 4, pp. 255-272.
Presertsan S., T. T. (1995). A Study Towards Energy Saving in Brick Making, Part 1: Key Parameters for Energy Saving. RERIC Int Energy J., 17 (2), 145-156.
Karaman, S. I., & & Gunal, H. (2006). Firing Temperature and Firing Time Influence on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Clay Bricks. Journal of Science and Industrial Research, 65, 153-159. doi: http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4811.
Elert, K., Cultrone, G., Nvarro, C. R., & Pardo, E. S. (2003). Durability of Bricks Used in the Conservation of Historic Buildings — Influence of Composition and Microstructure. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 4, Pp 91 -99.
Ghale, D., Bohora, N., Duwal, N., & Bhattarai, J. (2018). Investigation on the Mineralogical Phase of Ancient Brick Samples of Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) Using XRD and FTIR Analysis. Kathmandu: Rasaayan Journal of Chemistry (in press).
Litvan, G. G. (1984). Determination of the Firing Temperature of Clay Bricks. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 63 (4), Pp 617 - 18, 627.
Rani, J., Singh, K., Singh, R., & Harish, S. (2015). Effect on Microstructure of Clay Bricks after Firing Temperature. JETIR (ISSN-2349-5162), 2 (10).
Caltron, G., Sabastian, E., & Torre, D. (2005). Construction Building Material, 19, Pp. 39.
Weng, C., Lin, D., & Chiang, P. (2003). Utilization of Sludge as Brick Materials. Adv Environ Res, 7, Pp. 679-685.
Gautam. (2006). An Action Program on Air Quality Management of Kathmandu Valley. (2011). Industrial Policy.
Prajapati, S. (2009). Studies on the Application of Renewable Solid Fuel Alternative to the Imported Coal Fuel in Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln- A Master’s Thesis Submitted to Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
Manadhar, U. M., & Dangol, S. B. (2017). Study on Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in SAARC Countries. SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad. A Report on Nepal. Submitted by Min Energy Initiatives Nepal; ICIMOD; CCAC.
Jerin, M., Mondol, S., Sarkar, B., Rimi, R., & Aktar, S. (2016). Impacts of Brick Fields on Environment and Social Economy at Bagatipara, Natore, Bangladesh. J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 9 (2), Pp, 31-34.
Khan, H., Rahman, K., Abdur Rough, A., Sattar, G., Oki, Y., & Adachi, T. (2007). Assessment of Degradation of Agricultural Soils Arising from Brick Burning in Selected Soil Profiles. International Journal Environmental Science and Technology, 4 (4), Pp. 471- 480.
Yadav, N. K., & Rahul, K. (2017). Overview of Brick Kiln Sector and Environmental Issues in the Country. Anil Agrawal Environment Training Institute, AAETI, CSE.
Uprety, S., & Lamichhane, B. (2016). HERD. A blog retrieved from http://www.herd.org.np/blogs/47.
Bernard, H. (2002). Research Methods in Anthropology, Qualitative and quantitative methods. 3rd edition. Alta Mira.
Lewis, J., & Sheppard, S. (2006). Culture and communication: Can Landscape Visualization Improve Forest Management Consultation with Indigenous Communities. Landscape and Urban Planning, 77, Pp: 291- 313.
Tongco, M. (2007). Purposive Sampling as a Tool for Informant Selection. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, Pp: 147-158.
Bati, B., & Ranocchiai, G. (1994). A Critical Review of Experimental Techniques of Brick Material. Dipartimento di Costruzioni, Università di Firenze, piazza Brunelleschi 6, 50121 Firenze, Italia. Calgary, Canada: 10th IB2 MAC.
MoEST (2010) Environmental Pollution Control and Monitoring Section, Environment Division, Ministry of Environment Science & Technology, Singhadurbar. A Brief Note, Kathmandu, 7.
Vista, S. P., & Gautam, B. (2018). Influence of Brick Processing on Changes in Soil Physico-Chemical Properties of Bhaktapur District, Nepal. International Journal of Chemical Studies, SP4: 146-150. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29395.02088.
Rana, S., & Kumar, S. (2017). Brick Manufacturing: An Overview of Technology. Greentech Knowledge Solution Pvt. Ltd. Delhi, India.
Kaushik, H. B., Rai, D. C., & Jain, S. K. (2007). Stress-Strain Characteristics of Clay Brick Masonry under Uniaxial Compression. Journal of Material in Civil engineering, Vol 19.
Phaiju, S., & Pradhan, P. (2018). Experimental Work for Mechanical Properties of Brick and Masonry Panel. Journal of Science and Engineering, 5, Pp 51-57.
NBC205. (1994).: 1994. Nepal National Building Code. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Kathmandu.
MoLRM. (2015). Land Use Policy. Ministry of Land Reform and Management, Government of Nepal, Singhadurbar, Kathmandu.
ASTM, C.-0. (2015). Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity and Bulk Density of Burned Refractory Brick and Shapes by Boiling Water.
IS. (1992 (b)). Bureau of Indian standard, Indian standard methods of test of burn clay building bricks—Part 2: Determination of water absorption, IS3495, 3rd Revision, New Delhi, India.
NBC109. (1994). Nepal National Building Code. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Kathmandu.
Shrestha, S., & Thygerson, S. (2019). Brick Kilns of Nepal: A Non-Governmental Organization Perspective. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 9, Pp. 1-6.
IS1077: 1992. (2007). Common Burnt Clay Building Bricks – Specification.
ASTM. (2003). "Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay 363 Title” ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. C 67 - 03a.
ASTMC62. (2006). Annual Book of ASTM Standards; C 62, Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale). ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
OAQPS. (2003). Economic Impact Analysis for the Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing NESHAP: Final Rule. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Innovative Strategies and Economics Group, MD-C339-01 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. U.S.
Browse journals by subject